In 1881, Carlos Juan Finlay, a physician in Havana, first proposed that yellow fever was a mosquito-borne illness, which subsequently was proven by Walter Reed and colleagues.
U.S. Army doctor Discovered the Cause of Yellow Fever August 27, 1900.
Walter Reed, M.D., (1851-1902) was an American Army surgeon who led the team which proved the theory first set forth in 1881 by the Cuban doctor and scientist Dr. Carlos Finlay that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes rather than direct contact. The risky but fruitful research work was done with human volunteers, including some of the medical personnel such as Clara Maass and surgeon Jesse W. Lazear Walter Reed Medal winner who allowed themselves to be deliberately infected and died of the virus. All this lead to the elimination of Yellow Fever from Cuba and allowed the final construction of the Panama Canal.
Yellow fever has caused many terrible epidemics over the history of the word! It is fascinating to discover the world of yellow fever, and the devastation!
DefinitionYellow fever is an acute viral infectious disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. Though many cases of yellow fever are mild and self-limiting, yellow fever can also be a life-threatening disease causing hemorrhagic fever and hepatitis (hence the term "yellow" from the jaundice it can cause.
Yellow fever is an infectious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is transmittted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. It is endemic in areas of Africa and South America.
Once contracted, the virus incubates in the body for 3 to 6 days, followed by infection that can occur in one or two phases. The first, "acute", phase usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 days. However, 15% of patients enter a second, more toxic phase within 24 hours of the initial remission. High fever returns and several body systems are affected. The patient rapidly develops jaundice and complains of abdominal pain with vomiting. Bleeding can occur from the mouth, nose, eyes or stomach. Once this happens, blood appears in the vomit and faeces. Kidney function deteriorates. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10 to 14 days, the rest recover without significant organ damage.
Yellow fever is difficult to diagnose, especially during the early stages. It can be confused with severe malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, leptospirosis, viral hepatitis (especially the fulminating forms of hepatitis B and D), other hemorrhagic fevers (Bolivian, Argentine, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fevers and others flavivirus as West Nile, Zika virus etc) and other diseases, as well as poisoning. Blood tests can detect yellow fever antibodies produced in response to the infection. Several other techniques are used to identify the virus in blood specimens or liver tissue collected after death. These tests require highly trained laboratory staff and specialized equipment and materials.
Do you think you know a lot about this awful disease? Well, here you have many quizzes, try to do your best in your own evaluation. Good luck!